A pharyngeal swab for flora is a microscopic examination that allows you to identify microorganisms, microbes and bacteria that cause serious diseases. The results of the study are issued to the patient several hours after taking a smear and studying it in the laboratory. A smear from the throat allows you to identify violations of the internal organs and systems, to determine the effectiveness of the applied therapy. Bacterioscopy helps the doctor to make the correct diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate course of treatment.
What does the pharynx smear show on flora
The nose, throat and ears have a constant and abundant microflora, in which a certain number of microorganisms live.
If their number is balanced and does not deviate from the norm, then they will not harm human health. The imbalance of microorganisms can provoke infectious and inflammatory processes. In this case, the doctor prescribes a bacterioscopic method for studying the biomaterial from the pharynx.
Microbiological analysis has many advantages, the main of which is the efficiency of obtaining the result and the speed of the manipulation. A smear can detect fungi, bacteria and protozoa.
Bacterioscopy may reveal an undesired number of organisms, but not determine their species and genus (for this purpose, other studies are conducted). With the help of the analysis, the laboratory assistant finds out the exact number of microorganisms, assesses their parameters, shape, location.
The information obtained allows to determine the state of the internal organs, to identify inflammation and pathological changes that occur in a latent form without symptoms. In addition to studying the sample under a microscope, the biomaterial can be sent to bacterial culture on microflora, thanks to which it is possible to learn about the type and type of fungi and bacteria.
The analysis carried out in the laboratory, allows to determine the pathogen and its sensitivity to drugs, in particular to antibiotics. The duration of the study on the determination of microbes and other microorganisms varies from 7 to 13 days.
Varieties of smears on flora
A smear on the flora from the vagina is taken from the three main zones - the mucous membrane of the vagina, cervix and urinary canal. The gynecologist sends a woman for analysis:
- with pain in the lower abdomen;
- burning or itching of the genitals;
- long-term medication.
The study is conducted for those women who are planning to conceive a child.
To carry out bacterioscopy on the flora in men, you need a secret prostate gland, scraping the urethra and sperm. The urologist performs this manipulation during a routine examination of the man. The indications for the procedure are: discharge from the urinary canal, the suspicion of infertility, pain during emptying the bladder.
Analysis of the ear flora is prescribed for all types of inflammation of the middle ear, pus in the ear, painful sensations, and partial hearing loss. The study will show what caused the disease and which drugs most effectively deal with this disease. The doctor makes the sampling of biomaterial from the mucous membrane of the outer part of the ear.
Indications for taking a smear from the throat on the flora
A smear can be prescribed to the patient during a preventive examination, for example, for a school, institute or work. Other indications for the procedure include:
- suspicion of pertussis or meningococcal infection;
- abscesses localized near the tonsils;
- frontal disease;
It is also mandatory to study for women who are carrying a child, because the analysis can reveal hidden pathologies, infections and changes in the body of the future mother. Hidden diseases can complicate the course of pregnancy and become a threat to the life of the fetus.
Experts recommend taking a swab from the pharynx on the flora before surgery. The analysis is necessary for people who are in contact with patients with microbial diseases, to prevent further spread of infection.
The study should be carried out to determine the causative agent, which provoked the development of the disease of upper respiratory tract.
Features of preparation for the analysis
To obtain reliable results smear on the flora of the pharynx, one should not ignore some rules. Before manipulation, it is necessary to stop rinsing the mouth cavity with rinsing and other solutions.
A few days before the study, the patient should not use ointments and oral sprays, which include antimicrobial components and antibiotics.
On the delivery of the smear should come on an empty stomach: you can not eat and drink water for 6-8 hours before the procedure. No need to brush your teeth with the paste on the day of testing.
Refusal of solutions for rinsing the oral cavity and medicinal sprays for the pharynx is necessary due to the fact that most of the microorganisms will go along with them, hence the result of the smear will be false.
Food and drinks can wash off some of the germs and organisms that are on the mucous. The procedure for preparing for the smear takes no more than 2-3 days.
The patient enters the office and sits on the couch. The doctor asks the patient to throw his head back on a special headrest and open his mouth wide.
The specialist presses the patient’s tongue with a wooden or metal oblong spatula, then takes a wand with a cotton tip and collects the biomaterial from the pharyngeal mucosa. During the manipulation, a person does not feel pain or severe discomfort, only an emetic reflex may occur due to the touch of a stick to the back wall of the pharynx.
The doctor places the received sample in a special container or test tube. Under laboratory conditions, different media will act on the material taken in order to determine the presence of microbes, fungi and bacteria.
Depending on the response to a specific environment and the behavior of microorganisms during exposure to drugs and antibiotics, the laboratory technician gives the corresponding research result.
Obtaining analysis results
To properly interpret the results, you need to know the purpose for which the doctor prescribed it. On paper with a final answer, the name of those organisms that were found in large quantities is indicated. In the list or table in Latin, the name of all kinds of bacteria and microbes is written, the corresponding value is written in the corresponding columns in special measuring units.
In the human body in a small amount should be present candida, greening and epidermal streptococcus, pneumococcus, neisserii. The pathogens of diphtheria and pertussis, hemolytic streptococcus (group A), Candina albicans and other substances should not be detected.
The specialist who appointed a swab from the pharynx to the flora, he himself is engaged in decoding the results obtained, on the basis of them he diagnoses and prescribes a complex therapy.
Bacterioscopy is a simple, painless, affordable and fast method of research that provides reliable information about pathogens. Treatment of diseases of the throat should be those antibiotics, to which the identified microbe is most sensitive.