Breast trepanobiopsy is a diagnostic-type procedure that allows you to determine the presence of pathology and make a diagnosis. Sometimes this type of diagnosis is extremely important for the life of women.
Indications for breast-trepanobiopsy
Trepanobiopsy (biopsy) of the mammary gland is usually performed to make an accurate diagnosis when there is a suspicion of a benign or malignant neoplasm. The procedure is recommended when pathological discharge from the nipples is observed (after breastfeeding more than six months have passed, the discharge does not have a characteristic color, an unpleasant odor, with blood patches). It is worth asking for help if a lump is visualized in the chest, which is groped with its standard palpation, determination of the presence of tumors or lumps in the mammary gland by other diagnostic methods.
Changing the state of the nipples (the effect of the inverted nipple, peeling, hypersensitivity, darkening, change in shape), the formation of ulcers on the skin of the chest, cracks, rash requires referring to a specialist. Also, the procedure is prescribed in the presence of such diseases as mastitis, fibroadenoma, mastopathy, which allows to assess the risks of "ozlokachestvlenie" formations.
The essence of the procedure and preparation for it
A biopsy (trepanobiopsy) of the mammary gland is a medical diagnostic procedure that involves taking tissue samples for further examination of the cells for the presence of pathologies. The diagnostic method is prescribed only in special cases, with suspected diseases that cannot be detected by other methods.
During the procedure, it is possible not only to take tissue sampling for histological analysis, but also in the presence of a cystic formation, remove all the liquid and glue the walls of the cystic "sac". During the period of trepanobiopsy, tissue excision is performed, therefore, the procedure can be called surgical.
In order for the diagnosis to be successful and as a result, reliable tests were obtained, the patient needs to properly prepare for it. Among the preparatory points worth noting: a complete rejection of alcohol and drugs that affect blood clotting, at least a week.
It is important to warn the doctor about the presence of allergic reactions in order to be able to find the most effective and completely safe anesthesia. It is also worth talking about the presence of electronic devices and prostheses in the body (pacemakers, auditory prostheses, etc.).
Indications and Contraindications
Each procedure has its own indications and contraindications, and trephine biopsy is no exception. Among the testimony worth noting:
- control of the dynamics of the development of tumors in the breast;
- the need to identify malignant tumors of an immunohistochemical nature;
- if there is suspicion of breast cancer.
From contraindications worth noting the presence of allergic reactions to anesthesia. Also, the procedure is not assigned to women whose pathological changes are not visible during the period of ultrasound (the mandatory form of diagnosis before trepanobiopsy).
Algorithm of the procedure
For the procedure, a special needle is used, which includes a stem cutter with a cannula mandrel (flexible and long tube with a kind of rod). First, the doctor conducts local or general anesthesia. After the surface of the breast is treated with antiseptics.
A small incision is made with a scalpel through which the tube is inserted. When the cannula has reached a pathological formation, the rod is removed from it. Using a stem with an incisor, the doctor excises the tissue and removes them from the breast through periodic insertion of the cannula. If the tumor is cystic, it is aspirated. Through a syringe with a long needle is the intake of all liquid. After the electrocoagulator is introduced into the wound and cauterization of the walls is carried out.
In fact, the procedure is very painful, for this reason it is not performed without anesthesia. The type of anesthesia is determined by the doctor, given the size of the neoplasms and the estimated duration of the entire procedure.
If in the direction of diagnosis it was indicated that the analysis needs to be done urgently, its results are sent to the laboratory immediately after excision. The duration of laboratory research can be from one day to three, it all depends on the complexity of education. If the analysis is not urgent, the results can be ready within one week.
A woman is in the hospital after the procedure for several hours, provided that there are no complications in the process. But a woman should monitor the state of her health, the suture as closely as possible, and if there are any suspicions of complications, consult a doctor immediately.
Trepanobiopsy is nevertheless a surgical intervention, therefore, there are risks of complications, including febrile body condition, general malaise, fever, change in breast shape, local type reactions (increased pain, hyperemia, redness), tissue infection (sepsis), bleeding, hematoma formation, tissue edema.
In addition to trepanobiopsy, there are other analogue types of breast biopsy, including puncture (excision of tissues surgically), vacuum (materials are taken for research using special vacuum equipment), core-biopsy (a special medical equipment is used to clarify the diagnosis) , TAB-biopsy (aspiration fine-needle biopsy).
It is important for every woman to understand that breast problems can be deadly, and in recent years breast cancer has become younger.
Doctors recommend to visit the gynecologist and mammologist twice a year in order to determine the disease in a timely manner and eliminate it in the early stages.