Gebelomas are hat-leg mushrooms belonging to the stropharia family. Until recently, taxonomically, this genus of fungi was mistakenly assigned to other fungal families: cobweb or bolbitium.
This genus includes several species of mushrooms. At the same time, some gebelomas are conditionally edible or inedible, and some are poisonous. Experienced mushroom pickers, having discovered these mushrooms, do not pay attention to them, because they have no practical value.
These mushrooms grow everywhere: on soil, on rotten wood, in the places of the former campfires. Fruits in August-November.
Gebelomas belong to hat-cutaneous mushrooms: their fruiting body consists of a hat and a leg. Gebel's hat is flat or hemispherical, with a smooth or scaly shell of white or brown color. The diameter of different types of these mushrooms ranges from 3 to 9 cm. On the underside of the cap there are grown plates of light or brown color. Spore powder is colored with different shades of brown.
The cylindrical fiber legs are located centrally to the cap. Inside the leg can be hollow, and on top it is often covered with scales. On the stalk closer to the cap, many representatives of fungi of this genus have a spider-like or membranous ring.
The pulp of the mushroom is fleshy, resilient, white or brown in color, tastes bitter. On the cut, the pulp does not change its color and exudes a strong specific aroma similar to the smell of radish.
The genus goebel includes several dozen species. The most common of them in Russia are species: sticky, mustard, root, inaccessible, belted and carbon-loving.
Goebeloma is sticky
Mushrooms of this species are the most common gebelomas in our country. Russian mushroom pickers call them "horseradish mushrooms" or false valuy, and in England they are called "fairy cake" or "poisoned cake." They are attributed to inedible, and in some literary sources - to poisonous mushrooms.
Hats of false value are colored yellow-brown, sticky in young and dry in mature individuals. The sizes of the hats of some specimens reach 10 cm. On the back of the hats in wet weather moisture accumulates on the plates, which, after drying, gives them a spotting color. The flesh is light brown with a sharp rare smell and a bitter taste.
Gummy mushrooms grow in groups at the edges of the forest, clearings, along the roads. Distributed throughout the European part of Russia, the Far East, and Central Asia.
This is a toxic species of goebel. Their name comes from the fact that upon maturation, the plates on the back of the hats acquire a mustard color.
Their hats have wavy edges. In size, they can reach 15 cm. The color of the hats varies from cream to brown-red, while the edges are painted lighter than the center. Spore powder has a bright orange color.
The legs inside are hollow, a longitudinal section in the upper part shows the connection between the cavities inside the cap and legs. The legs are covered with scales in such a way that they create an annular pattern on them.
Coniferous and deciduous forests are a favorite place for the growth of mustard gebel. Grow in large groups.
Root gebeloma (root)
These representatives of the genus Goebel are conditionally edible: some culinary specialists cook them together with edible mushrooms. The legs of the root goebel are half submerged in the soil, creating a semblance of a root. Because of this feature, root species mushrooms got their name.
Their hats are large (up to 15 cm in diameter), hemispherical in shape, light brown in color. The surface of the cap is covered with darker scales, which makes it appear pockmarked. The plates are semi-grown, painted in different shades of gray and brown, while in young specimens they are lighter than in mature ones. The pulp is dense, light, has a bitter taste and almond smell.
They love to grow in deciduous forests, as they form mycorrhiza with deciduous trees. More often they can be found in places with a bald topsoil: in pits, ditches, near burrows.
It is a poisonous mushroom. Has a hat with a diameter of 4 to 8 cm with a depression in the center. The surface of the cap is mucous, ginger, with a wavy edge. The plates are wide, with bright edges. The pulp has a bitter taste and a pronounced smell of radish. The leg is covered with scales, thickened at the base.
They grow on moist soils of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests, abandoned gardens, rarely visited corners of parks and squares. Ripen in August-September.
Mushrooms of this species got their name due to the pronounced brown belt on the leg. This belt is formed by a private veil that envelops the hat and the upper part of the leg of young specimens, while in mature ones it remains only in the form of a ring on the leg and scraps along the edge of the cap.
Belted gebelomas are inedible, but not poisonous mushrooms. The size of the mushrooms does not exceed 8-9 cm. Their hats come in different shapes: from conical to flat with a tubercle in the center. The surface of the hats is chestnut brown with light edges. The plates are pinkish brown. The pulp is light brown, with the smell of radish.
The leg of the belted gebeloma is straight or curved, extends to the base, has a white flesh at the cut, and brown at the base.
These mushrooms form mycorrhiza with various deciduous and coniferous trees, so they can often be found under the trees.
These are poisonous mushrooms. They call him carnivorous because he grows in places of former fires and bonfires. These are small mushrooms with a hat diameter of not more than 2 cm. Its shape changes as the mushroom ripens from dome-shaped to flat. The surface of the cap is mucous to the touch, painted yellow. The plates are brown in color and the spore powder is bright brown.
The leg is thin, thickened to the base, covered with a touch of light red color. The mushroom pulp is white, without an unpleasant odor, but with a bitter taste.
Despite the fact that not all species of goebel are poisonous, experienced mushroom pickers and doctors do not recommend eating even their conditionally edible comrades. The explanation for this negative attitude to their use in cooking is simple. It consists in the fact that the differences between different species of goebel are very insignificant, so conditionally edible mushrooms are very easy to confuse with poisonous specimens. Therefore, in order to avoid acute poisoning by Goebel toxins, it is better to abandon their collection and eating in general.
Among the various species of these mushrooms, mustard gebeloma, inaccessible and carbon-loving, can cause acute poisoning. Fatal outcome when they are eaten by healthy people, as a rule, does not occur, however, acute digestive and cardiac disorders can be observed.
If the victim has severe heart, gastrointestinal or kidney diseases, the use of poisonous gebels can provoke a significant deterioration in their health and lead to death as a result of acute organ failure.
The severity of the signs of poisoning with poisonous gebelomas depends on the initial state of health of the patient, the amount of mushrooms eaten, consumption simultaneously with alcohol, narcotic or potent drugs.
Medium poisoning is characterized by symptoms:
- abdominal pains;
- an increase in body temperature to subfebrile digits (reactive fever);
- visual disturbances (loss of visual fields, decreased severity);
- pallor of the skin with blueness of the lips and fingertips;
- palpitations or cardiac arrhythmias;
- drop in blood pressure;
- sharp weakness.
If a small amount of goebel is eaten, then the patient's condition can improve independently after 2-3 days.
In more severe cases, emergency medical care and hospitalization are needed.
If there is information about the consumption of mushrooms of unknown origin (independently harvested, purchased in natural markets), the appearance of the first signs of poisoning (nausea and vomiting) allows you to suspect poisoning of a person with poisonous mushrooms.
In order not to lose precious time, you must:
- Call an ambulance crew immediately.
- Provoke vomiting in the patient and rinse his stomach.
- Allow any intestinal absorbent (activated charcoal, Smecta) to be taken.
- Make (if possible) the affected person a cleansing enema.
- Save the remains of mushrooms or food prepared from them.
- If there are no residues, it is necessary to collect the vomit of the patient in a clean container or plastic bag.
The patient can not take any medications except absorbents, because this can mitigate the symptoms of poisoning, which will mislead doctors, worsen his condition or reduce the effectiveness of subsequent drug therapy.
Gebelomas are fungi that grow everywhere in our country. This genus of fungi is represented by many species, among which there are conditionally edible, inedible and poisonous specimens. Their species difference is insignificant, therefore it is not worth hoping for knowledge of the morphological features of different species.
During their collection, mushroom pickers need to be very careful. Unknown mushrooms or those of their representatives, the edibility of which is doubtful, is categorically impossible.
Poisonous mushrooms contain life-threatening neurotoxic toxic substances.
The use of toxic goebel can cause poisoning with the development of acute failure of various internal organs.
Therefore, if you suspect a poisoning with gebelomas, the victim should immediately receive first aid, which consists in washing the stomach and cleaning the intestines. The faster the primary care is provided to the patient, the better the prognosis.