Mayonnaise is a delicious cold sauce used in the kitchen by almost every hostess. It is worth recalling at least such a popular salad as olivier, or everyone’s favorite dish - meat in French. Today, mayonnaise has sunk deep into the hearts of many gourmets. It is impossible to imagine a variety of cold snacks, fast foods or holiday salads without it. And how tasty is the kebab, if you use this wonderful sauce instead of marinade! He quite firmly entered into everyday life and took his place of honor among his favorite dishes.
A bit of history
There are several versions about the origin of mayonnaise. The first two of them are quite similar to each other. According to legend, he owes his appearance to the capital of the Spanish island of Menorca - the city of Mahon (or Mayon). This happened at the very beginning of the Seven Years' War, at the time of the siege by the British troops of the French, led by the Duke of Richelieu. In the city conquered by French officers, there was practically no food supply left, except for eggs and olive oil that bored everyone to their horror. Of these, cooks cooked omelettes and fried eggs every day, which were used to treat both soldiers and officers.
Then the famous marshal of France ordered one of his cooks to come up with something new from the available products. The court culinary did not let the duke down, and the next day the French tried a new gourmet dish - sauce made from beaten eggs, butter, salt and various spices. This dish was given the name "mayonnaise" in honor of the city of Mahon, for which there was a battle.
In another version of the legend appears no less significant than Marshal Richelieu, a figure - Louis de Crillon, Duke of Maon. Which distinguished itself during the siege of Minorca in 1781. In honor of the victory over the British, a feast was organized, which served dishes seasoned with delicious sumptuous sauce prepared according to an old French recipe.
Also, one should not discard the option that tells that the classic mayonnaise originates from the French ali-oli sauce, or aioli, known since time immemorial. Which, according to the classic recipe, included grated garlic with aromatic olive oil.
Be that as it may, it is safe to say that the founder of this sauce is a glamorous and sophisticated France, which has always been famous for its delicious dishes and sumptuous sauces.
The composition of the product
Classic mayonnaise contains:
- vegetable oil (sunflower or olive);
- lemon juice or citric acid;
- egg yolk;
- spices and spices.
In some European countries, a sugar-added product is popular. Such a sauce has a fat content of about 80% and its caloric content steps over 700 kcal.
It should be noted right away that, unfortunately, those products that are currently sold in stores have nothing to do with classic mayonnaise.
The shelf life of a classic sauce is relatively small, and the price, due to the high cost of natural products, will go off scale. Therefore, the variety of jars that flaunt on supermarket shelves offers cheaper options, longer shelf life. And all this is achieved thanks to preservatives and food additives that are part of the products:
- flavor enhancers - artificially obtained flavors used to improve taste;
- emulsifiers - synthetic substances responsible for the consistency of the product, its viscosity and plastic properties;
- preservatives - food additives that extend the shelf life of the finished product.
In many sources you can find information that industrial mayonnaises contain such dangerous substances as trans fats, which have devastating consequences for the human body. But after all, mayonnaise is an emulsion consisting of vegetable oil and water, and trans fats are obtained chemically by hydrogenation of this very oil. The modern production of mayonnaise uses refined oils, which also have nothing to do with trans fats.
The chemical composition of Provence mayonnaise
The sauce, well known and widespread in the former USSR, was strictly regulated by state standards. For a long time, the only preservative in its composition was alcohol vinegar.
The calorie content of mayonnaise is 629 kcal. The fat content is 67 grams, protein is 2.8 grams, and carbohydrates are 3.7 grams. It also contains a number of useful vitamins: A, E, B1, B2, B4, B6. And valuable minerals: potassium (38 mg), magnesium (13 mg), phosphorus (54 mg), calcium (33 mg), sodium (508 mg), iron (1 mg). In addition, its composition contains saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, sterols.
Classification and benefits of mayonnaise
In Russia, until July 1, 2012, according to GOST, mayonnaises were divided into the following types:
- high-calorie (fat - from 55%, water - less than 35%);
- medium calories (fat - from 40 to 55%, water - from 30 to 35%);
- low-calorie (fat - up to 40%, water - more than 50%).
But after, GOST came into force, which prohibits calling a product containing less than 50% fat content mayonnaise. The rest remains content with the name "mayonnaise sauce" or "cream with vegetable oils."
The benefits of store-bought mayonnaise containing various chemical additives are very illusory. However, here you can also note the high content of essential fatty acids necessary for the stable functioning of the body.
But basically a natural product brings benefits, the classic composition of which includes natural ingredients. The first thing to mention is the vitamins and minerals that are contained in this product. Thanks to B vitamins and lecithin, it contributes to the normalization of the nervous system, protects against stress and depression, prevents harmful effects on the body of the environment and free radicals, improves liver function.
Mayonnaise normalizes the production of gastric juice and is a source of beta-carotene and vitamin E, responsible for visual acuity, beauty and health of the skin and hair.
The eggs that make up the product contain a protein that is very useful for the human body - albumin. Vegetable oil is rich in healthy cholesterol and unsaturated fatty acids, which are easily absorbed by the body. Due to this, it is well used for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. It also contains vitamins E and F, which help the body fight aggressive environmental factors and help improve metabolism. Vinegar is a dangerous substance for harmful bacteria, and some varieties, such as apple, help whiten tooth enamel.
Use in cosmetology
It is worth mentioning that in cosmetology the product itself is not so useful as its components, namely vegetable oil and eggs. Therefore, for use in this area, it is worth considering a high-quality mayonnaise, in which natural ingredients are present. With it, you can make masks for hair and face, soften coarsened areas of the skin.
In order to strengthen brittle and thin hair, you need to apply the sauce on the head and distribute it through the hair. Wrap a plastic bag on top or put on a shower cap. Leave the mixture for an hour, then rinse with warm water. After such a mask, the hair will be smooth, shiny and will break much less.
If you apply mayonnaise on your face and hold for twenty minutes, then such a mask will moisturize the skin as much as possible and nourish it with oxygen and vitamins. And if sour cream is added to the sauce in equal proportions, then this will be just a magic tool for tough, coarse skin of the feet. A mixture of mayonnaise with lemon juice will help tone the skin and refresh it.
An excellent tool for facial rejuvenation will be a mask of mayonnaise, strong tea and honey. And if you mix the product with cucumber juice, you get a tool to get rid of age spots and lighten the skin.
Is mayonnaise possible with diets
It is extremely undesirable to use mayonnaise when losing weight, because it contains a large amount of fat and high-calorie foods. Now and again you can see advertisements about an excellent and healthy fat-free product, but unnatural thickeners and emulsifiers will necessarily be used for their preparation, because the consistency of fats in such mayonnaise is much lower, and to achieve a homogeneous mass without preservatives you just can not do. Then the question becomes: is it worth it to feed yourself with unnecessary chemistry during a diet when the body is already stressed?
But what if you still really want to? Many nutritionists believe that a small amount of this sauce will not harm at all. But there are several ways to lower the fat content of this product:
- mix it with low-fat sour cream or unsweetened yogurt;
- prepare a homemade product based on low-calorie ingredients.
Of course, it’s better to completely abandon this nutritious product, and if possible, it is better to replace it with yogurt, sour cream or less high-calorie creamy sauce.
Which product is preferable
When choosing a product, the first thing you should pay attention to is the composition. Ideally, it will include vegetable oil, egg products or eggs, mustard powder, sugar, salt and vinegar. Typically, such mayonnaise is stored in the refrigerator for no more than a month. You should not choose sauces with a fat content of less than 67%, as light fat-free products contain synthetic ingredients such as emulsifiers, thickeners, colorants, preservatives and flavorings.
Always pay attention to the packaging of the product. It must be hermetically sealed and not damaged. It is advisable to give preference to long-established brands.
Mayonnaise should be moderately thick, not contain bubbles and grains. Its color should be light, cream. And remember: the shorter the shelf life of a product, the more natural it is.
The harmful properties of mayonnaise
Speaking about the harmfulness of mayonnaise, it is precisely a commercial product that is implied, since a natural one can be harmful only to people suffering from increased body weight and problems of the gastrointestinal tract. Also, its composition contains harmful cholesterol, the consumption of which also harms the body.
Commercial mayonnaise, in addition to all of the above, contains various food additives, emulsifiers, acids and preservatives, which have a devastating effect on the human body. But, of course, if you constantly use a natural product, good will not be enough. You always need to know the measure.
By the way, it is worth recalling that if a homemade natural product is not prepared according to technology or using low-quality ingredients, then when it is eaten, food poisoning can be obtained. For the same reason, you may not use that mayonnaise that has expired.
The best and highest quality product will be one that is cooked at home using natural ingredients.
To make it, you will need:
- egg yolk - 2 pcs;
- vegetable oil (sunflower or olive) - 200 grams;
- vinegar - 1 teaspoon;
- mustard - 1/4 teaspoon;
Mix eggs, mustard and vinegar, add spices and beat until smooth. Gradually pour the vegetable oil to a thick cream. If in the process the resulting mass is too thick, you can add boiled water.
In addition, garlic, herbs and lemon juice can be added to the recipe.
Mayonnaise is a classic cold sauce used everywhere for the preparation of various dishes, salads, snacks. Often it is used in food with bread, as an independent product. Natural classic mayonnaise made in compliance with the technology and quality ingredients is very useful for the human body. Such a product can also be used for medical purposes: for the prevention of diseases of the cardiovascular system, the normalization of metabolism, the stabilization of the nervous system and the protection of the body from aggressive environmental influences. Also, this product is often used for cosmetic purposes, as a means to improve and rejuvenate the skin, to tone and moisturize, to soften rough areas of the arms and legs, as well as to strengthen and grow hair. At the same time, it is worth noting that such a sauce is practically not realistic to buy in the store, due to its high cost and short shelf life. But then it’s easy to cook it at home, having the right ingredients at hand. If you still choose commercial mayonnaises, you should give preference to those that do not contain chemical food additives, colorants, emulsifiers, flavor enhancers and preservatives.