Ruff is a freshwater fish of the Okunev family living in water bodies of Central Asia and Europe. Lives in dams, lakes, near river banks with a sandy and rocky bottom. Artificial ruff is cultivated in North America. It feeds on small fish, benthic invertebrates and some plants. The name of the representative of the Okunev family was due to the ability to ruffle the fins while pulling it out of the water. This is a prickly, slimy and very unpleasant fish. Therefore, fishermen do not speak very flattering about her, considering her a weedy species.
Ruff meat has a lot of bones, but tasty and sweet. A distinctive feature of fish is its high stickiness, which is why it is often used to prepare aspic and fish soup. The benefit of the ruff is due to the balanced amino acid composition of nutrients, vitamins and mineral compounds. With regular use, carbohydrate metabolism improves, the condition of the skin, immunity strengthens.
Fish soup is a diet dish recommended for use in the postoperative period.
Ruff has a catchy appearance that is difficult to confuse with other fish. The body is short, bent by a ring. The mouth is small, the bottom, the snout is blunt, there are no fangs. Each jaw has bristle teeth. The ruff is gray-green with melamine brown spots on the back, dorsal, caudal fins and on the sides. The maximum length of an individual is 27 cm, and weight is 500 g (at 15 years of age). However, in most water bodies there is a small ruff with a size of 18 cm and a mass of 200 g. Under natural conditions, fish grows slowly and only if there is an intensive forage base and thermal regime its development rate increases sharply.
High geographical and environmental variability of the ruff is noted. Often it can hybridize to a perch. It is interesting that the offspring resulting from the crossing of two species is more adapted to adverse environmental factors: water pollution, temperature changes.
Ruff is a typical benthophagus. His favorite foods include larvae of gammarids, chironomids. In case of their lack in the reservoir, he switches to fish food (caviar, fry), zooplankton. With age, large representatives of the species become predators.
At 2-4 years of life, puberty occurs with a length of 9-12 cm. Depending on the size, the female fecundity is 2-104 thousand eggs. Long spawning begins in April and ends in June. During this period, the female sweeps 3 servings of caviar on sandy, stony soils.
Ruff is very susceptible to eutrophication of water bodies and water pollution, which is the reason for the decrease in the population of the species.
In 100 g of the edible part of the ruff, 88 kcal, 70 g of water, 17.5 g of protein, 2 g of fat are concentrated.
Vitamin-mineral composition represented by niacin (2.905 mg), sulfur (175 mg), chlorine (165 mg), fluorine (0.43 mg), chromium (0.055 mg), nickel (0.006 mg), molybdenum (0.004 mg), zinc (0,0007 mg).
The biologically active substances that make up the fish exhibit the following properties:
- improve carbohydrate metabolism;
- support muscle tissue;
- strengthen bone tissue, reduce the likelihood of developing rickets and osteoporosis;
- reduce cravings for sugary foods;
- facilitate weight loss and stimulate calorie burning during intense exercise.
In 100 g of ruff fillet contains 0.055 mg of chromium, which is 110% of the daily dose of trace element. With regular use, it has a therapeutic effect on the human body: it facilitates the penetration of glucose into the cells through the membrane, improves sexual functions, metabolism of the myocardium, nervous tissue, has wound healing, ulcer healing, thermogenic and antiatherosclerotic effects. If there is not enough chromium, blood sugar and cholesterol levels increase.
Ruff meat is recommended to be used for nervous, physical exhaustion, pregnancy, restorative nutrition after illness, vitamin deficiency, anemia and weakened immunity, pellagra.
Contraindications: allergy to fish and seafood, hypersecretion of gastric juice.
Ruff is a small fish containing many bones and very sharp spikes, which is why it does not have commercial value. Often she accidentally gets caught.
Before you cook an ear or aspic from a ruff, you need to clean it, and this is a very time-consuming process. A slim, spiky carcass is hard to hold. Because of what inexperienced culinary specialists can poke all fingers.
After cleaning the fish from the scales, it is washed, placed in a bag of gauze (in order to avoid the ingress of bones into the ear) and thrown into boiling water. Cooking should not exceed 7 minutes. Then the carcass is removed from the rich soup, squeezing the juice, lay the rest of the ingredients.
Ruff is a small-sized freshwater fish with spiky fins. Due to the difficulty in processing the body, it is not grown on an industrial scale and is practically not used in cooking. A characteristic feature of fish is its high stickiness, which determines its value for the preparation of fish soup, jellied dishes. Before heat treatment, the carcass is carefully cleaned of scales, placed in gauze and boiled for 7 minutes, otherwise it will disintegrate and small bones will fall into the rich broth. Ruffs do not fry or dry.
With the regular use of dishes from representatives of the perch family, carbohydrate metabolism and digestion of food improves (due to the activation of the separation of gastric juice). In addition, the fish is rich in proteins, macro- and microelements, which have a vasodilating effect, prevent the progression of skin disease pellagra.